In the United States, the First Amendment protects freedom of speech and freedom of the press for arunima sinha husband.
The amendment is applicable to both laws enacted by Congress and local governments, as well as to state action (i.e., everything from private universities to individual municipalities). The amendment also applies to content published on certain private online platforms, such as Facebook or Twitter. This means that even if a social media company wants to block a viewpoint because it disagrees with its political orientation or content, it cannot do so when that viewpoint concerns a matter of public concern.
Moreover, the First Amendment applies even to fictional content that is clearly protected by the First Amendment (e.g., the flag burning case of “United States v. Eichman” in 1989); this is true regardless of whether the speech also concerns a matter of public concern. Thus, when Facebook or Twitter has reason to believe that a user’s post or statement violates the constitutional rights of others, it must delete that post regardless of whether it is protected under freedom of speech or press.
1. Defamation and libel
The First Amendment protects the freedom of speech of individuals. The concept of defamation has been applied differently in American law than in the English common law from which it originated. Under the traditional British common law, publishers were liable for libeling a private individual if the statement at issue was false, it was made about a private individual, it would tend to expose that individual to “hatred, ridicule [or] contempt”, and if making that statement would be considered harmful or immoral. This formulation created an incentive for defamation defendants to accuse plaintiffs of criminal behavior since questionnaires regarding criminal activity were common forms of communication in England during the 18th century.
2. Truth in advertising
The amendment also protects commercial speech, including false advertising. A company can be sued for libel and/or slander if it makes false claims about the products it sells. In order to be deemed false, the claims must be made with knowledge that they are false. The falsity of a statement is judged by whether a reasonable consumer would not believe the statement (as opposed to whether it is technically true).
3. Commercial speech and non-commercial speech
The First Amendment also applies to some advertisements, but not all advertisements can make use of freedom of speech and press. For instance, an advertisement cannot use these rights even if it does not charge for its service or product. It can be classified as commercial if it is a paid advertisement such as a direct mail solicitation, a television commercial, an infomercial, or an internet ad. This type of advertisement often uses highly charged emotional language that threatens legal action if the listener does not purchase the product; for example, “if you do not purchase this product today, we will come to your home and sue you for $50,000 in damages”.
This type of advertising generally cannot include political or social commentary because it would likely be considered to be commercial speech. The law also prohibits advertisements that are used to sell banned products. For instance, it would be prohibited to advertise tobacco or alcohol on television since such products are banned by the government.
4. Free Press
The First Amendment does not protect journalists from being sued for libel in federal court, but it does generally protect them from being prosecuted for publishing an illegal document. To be considered illegal under freedom of speech, the document must be considered defamatory and also concern a matter of public concern. For instance, in “New York Times v. Sullivan”, the Supreme Court ruled that journalists can be sued for defamation if they make false statements about public figures with malicious intent.
5. Freedom of information
The First Amendment also applies to the press (and other media) since they are included under freedom of speech and press. In addition, freedom of information acts grant access to government documents that would otherwise be unavailable to the public (e.g., information regarding official misconduct or corruption). Governments that adopt freedom of information acts say that these acts are in the public interest because they encourage transparency and reduce the risk of government abuse. Critics say that such acts are partisan in nature and attempt to stifle legitimate scrutiny of the government.
6. Defamation suits against non-media publications
In many states, libel laws apply to individuals who create non-media publications as well as media outlets (e.g., blog sites, online news outlets). The First Amendment generally does not protect online publications since they generally do not have physical presences like newspapers or television stations, but unlike some states, it does not protect publishers who engage in libel on their own website. As a result, if an individual creates a website that spreads libelous statements about another person, that individual can be sued for libel.
7. Commercial speech and political speech
Unlike some states, the First Amendment does not protect commercial speech. Commercial messages are mere advertisements that do not involve any ideological content. Examples of commercial speech include advertisements for products and services, political speeches, and political candidates. Thus, if a candidate were to advertise on television during a commercial break that he will ban certain forms of gambling or sell certain types of drugs if elected, the candidate would be violating the laws against advertising these activities.
Nevertheless, it is possible to argue that such statements are protected by the First Amendment if they relate to matters of political controversy.